Bibliographic standards

Translated from:
Normes bibliographiques

Bibliographical references are abbreviated in footnotes and expanded at the end of the article (so-called Harvard system).


  • The author's name, typed in lowercase , is followed by the year and the relevant pages:

Durand 1980, p. 181-188 (and not 181-8 ou 181-88).

  • An author's works published in the same year are distinguished by the use of lower case letters a, b, etc. placed after the year, without spaces:

Martin 1974a, p. 1-12.

  • For two authors, the second is announced by ‘and’:

Smith and Stevens 1996.

  • For three or more authors, use ‘et al.’:

James et al. 2012.

  • In the final bibliography, authors’ names will be expanded.

  • The semicolon is used to separate several references:

Hodder 1980, p. 26; Winkler 2009, p. 11.

Final bibliography

  • Sort the general bibliography in the following order:

  1. List of abbreviations in alphabetical order.

  2. Ancient sources.

  3. Epigraphic sources.

  4. Works.

  • For bibliographical references in a foreign language, the English punctuation should be used.

  • The surname, followed by the initial of the forename(s), is in small capitals with initials in capital letters:

Hodder I.

  • Only the first letter is required to abbreviate forenames, only the first letter is required:

Christophe Thiers = Thiers C.

  • Initials of French compound forenames are separated by a hyphen:

Jean-Philippe Lauer = Lauer J.-P.

  • Initials of Anglo-Saxon compound forenames are separated by a dot, without a space:

Cecil Mallaby Firth = Firth C.M.

  • In case of multiple authors or publishers, the last one is preceded by “and”:

Miller J.F. and Newlands C.E. 2014, A Handbook to the Reception of Ovid, Malden-Oxford; Morel J.P. 1983, ‘La céramique comme indice du commerce antique (réalités et interprétations’, in P. Garnsey et C.R. Whittaker (ed.), Trade and Famine in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge, p. 66-74.

  • No comma is required between the author's name and the year:

Dupond J. 1992.

  • The mention (ed.), (dir.), etc. is placed before the year of publication:

Laubenheimer F. (dir.) 2001.

  • Reeditions: use the terms 2nd, 3rd ed., etc. (rather than 1980² or [1972] 1980):

Will É. 1980, Le monde grec et l'Orient (2nd ed.), Paris.

  • When no date is specified, (n.d.), (in press) or (forthcoming) are used.

  • If the work is part of a collection, the latter must be mentioned, along with its number in arabic numerals.

  • Volume numbers of journals, collections, etc. are in Arabic numerals. The name of the journal and its number are not separated by a comma:

Syria 42.

  • Place of publication:

    • must be systematically indicated in English: London and not Londres, Padua and not Padova, etc.

    • in case of multiple places of publication, they should be separated by en dashes:

Redman C. 1978, Social Archaeology, New York-London.

  • Mention of the publisher is only required for rare or old editions.

Authored volume

Morris I. 1992, Death Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge.

Paranavitana S. 1970, Inscriptions of Ceylon I, Colombo.

Trendall A.D. and Cambitoglou A. 1982, The Red-Figured vases of Apulia II, Oxford.


Extended serie’s name is written in roman:

Pouderon B. (dir.) 2005, Lieux, décors et paysages de l’ancien roman des origines à Byzance. Actes du 2e colloque de Tours, 24‐26 octobre 2002, Collection de la Maison de l’Orient méditerranée ancien 34. Série littéraire et philosophique 8, Lyon.

Authored paper in journal

Extended journal title is written in italics:

Dickie M.W. 1991, ‘Heliodorus and Plutarch on the Evil Eye’, Classical Philology 86, p. 17-29.

Pollini A. 2012, ‘Limites et occupation de l’espace dans les colonies grecques du sud de l’Italie’, Pallas 89, p. 123-142.

Dictionary or encyclopaedia items

Volume number is in roman numerals (upper case); s.v. introducing the item.

Balty J.-C. 1981, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae  I, s.v. ‘Antiocheia’, p. 840-851.

Authored paper in edited volume

The title of the collective work is introduced by ‘in’. The names of the scientific editors are in lower case.

Dussart O. 2000, ‘Quelques indices d'ateliers de verriers en Jordanie et en Syrie du Sud de la fin de l'époque hellénistique à l'époque islamique’, in M.-D. Nenna (ed.), La route du verre, Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée 33, Lyon, p. 91-96.

Unpublished dissertations and thesis

Castel G. 1979, Matériaux pour servir à une étude de l'habitat rural et bédouin en Égypte, PhD thesis, Université Lumière Lyon 2 (unpublished).

Moorti U.S. 1985, Megalithic Culture of South India, Ph.D., University of Poona (unpublished).

Ancient Authors and works

The authors full name is separated from the title of their work – or from the referring chapter number and/or text passage – by a comma. The title of the work may be quoted in abbreviated form in accordance with the usage of language dictionaries (Gaffiot and Bailly).

Sophocles, Electra 4-6.

Pausanias, II, 20, 3-5.

Isodorus Hispalensis, Etymologia or Origines XIV, 6, 12 (ed. W.M. Lindsay).

Epigraphic collections and corpora

Corpora are indicated in italics. The volume is cited in roman numerals separated by a non-breaking space from the referring document in Arabic numeral.


ILS II 5318

P. Lond. V 1657

Electronic references

Lecocq F. 2009, ‘L’œuf du phénix. Myrrhe, encens et cannelle dans le mythe du phénix’, Schedae 17, 2, p. 107-130, online: [accessed on 4/2019].

Stevens B.E. 2020, ‘“Not the Lover’s Choice, but the Poet’s”: Classical Receptions in Portrait of a Lady on Fire’, Frontière·s 2, online: [accessed on 6/2020].